Why Design Reuse Is More Advantageous for PCB Fabrication

The schematic diagrams used on the design of printed circuit board or PCBs are often protected under Intellectual Property Rights. This means that one manufacturer’s design cannot be used for the PCB fabrication of its competitor. This has made it possible for some of the world’s leading producers of electronic devices to compete in healthy ways and to constantly innovate on their brand’s unique designs. However, there are some experts who propose that PCB designs be reused in certain ways by select groups of PCB innovators.

The proponents of design reuse for PCB fabrication have provided the following advantages in their arguments:

PCB Fabrication1.An overall improvement in the quality of the finished product. This is because electronic engineers would be working on an existing design that has already been previously tested by other engineers. This means that the engineer who would be re-using the design can focus on selecting more durable and high-quality materials instead of the previous focus on testing the design’s functionalities.

2.It reduces the time it takes between the production of a new product and its introduction to the market. This means that manufacturers would be able to gain a return on their product investments in less time than it would take when introducing a brand-new product made out of a brand-new PCB design.

Design reuse for PCB fabrication leverages on an existing diagram that has already been proven to work. Engineers would only have to focus on improving the different aspects of the existing design that has been known to cause problems in the past or to replace the features that consumers did not appreciate in the previous version. But people who do not specialize in electronics might ask why there is such a focus on shortening the time frame for PCB fabrication, thereby shortening the time it takes for a new product to be launched.

Answering this query requires taking a closer look at how printed circuit boards are created. First, engineers would have to pick the right materials that would serve as the base of the circuit. Many engineers choose a fiberglass material that is coated with a thin sheet of copper because this base has already been tested and proven to be non-conductors. However, there are instances when a manufacturer might want to be truly innovative and test other materials that might be better than fiberglass as a base. This means adding a few more months to the PCB fabrication.

After choosing the material for the base, the schematic diagram has to be drawn in order to determine which portions of the base board to drill holes on, as well as to be able to obtain the correct measurement of the design that would fit into the size of the circuit board. The next stage involves mounting each of the circuit board’s components one by one. Great care has to be taken on this process because over-soldering a component could mean damage. And as every expert on PCB assembly already knows, a single bit of damage on any of the components is tantamount to a factory defect on the entire circuit board. It won’t function when one of the components is not functioning.

After mounting the components, the PCB would have to undergo a battery of tests to ensure that its voltage matches the voltage required for the finished product to function as designed. The tests would also determine whether there is any defect in any component that slipped the quality control officer’s notice. The PCB has to pass every test that it undergoes before engineers can give it the go signal to be used on new products. Otherwise, everyone would have to go back to the drawing board and start from square one.

What to Remember When Ordering Custom Coins

If you have to have custom coins made for a special event in your school, your company, or whatever organization you are a member of, these are just some of the things you should remember if you want to make your ordering experience worth it. Custom coins are the perfect giveaway to commemorate a special event, may it be an anniversary or just any celebration. Not only are these coins highly customizable, but these are also easy on the pocket. You will not have to spend too much if you want to have these made as a souvenir or as a giveaway.

The first thing you should do if you want to order custom coins is to know your budget and know how many people you will be giving these coins to.

Figure out how much you can spend per coin, and use this as a guide in your succeeding decisions. You don’t want to just realize later on that you’ve gone over your budget. Not only will this cause you a lot of stress, but you might even have to shell out your personal money to be able to pay off the entire fee.

custom coinOnce you’ve figured out the budget, it’s time to focus on the design of your custom coin. Of course, keep in mind that the more complicated your design is, the more expensive the cost will be per coin. This is because it will be harder to create the mold if your design has many details on it. Moreover, think of the design itself. Will the coin look good if it has too many words on it? Will the coin look appealing if the whole surface is used up in images? Remember, the coin is just small. You run the risk of it looking cluttered and messy if you put too many details. Sometimes, the simpler the design is, the better the outcome.

After finalizing your design, the next thing you should do is to look for the perfect manufacturer who can give you what you want. Contrary to what most people may think, not all coin manufacturers are the same. There are some who have limited capabilities while some can offer you a whole array of options, like putting colors on the coin, or covering it with enamel. Do your research and familiarize yourself with the design options that you can choose from. If you want a coin that will definitely stand out, then look for a manufacturer that can give you the option of putting colors on the coin. This will cost more of course, so remember to weigh all your decisions.

Once you’re ready and you already have a manufacturer in mind, then you can already place your order. Usually, custom coin manufacturers will ask you for the design that you want, and they will assess it before giving you a quotation. Once they give you a quotation, nothing is set yet. You can bargain and haggle if you want to, in case the price they give is way beyond your budget. You can even compromise and change the design a bit so that you may be able to come to a mutually beneficial decision.

After this is done, the manufacturers will create a die art of your design, which you will have to approve. This is the last time you can change your mind about the design, because after the mold is made, it’ll take more money to change it. If you approve the die art, then you’re all set. Your custom coins are on its way to production, and it will be delivered to you anywhere between three to five weeks, depending on how many you order.

A Perfect Fit: Choosing Golf Shoes

Golfing is a sport that generally does not require a special pair of shoes. The usual equipment utilized for this sport is the golf clubs. Now, this is most acceptable, of course, seeing as the weight and material of the golf clubs affect the swing of a player – the key action in golfing.

However, more and more people, especially expert players, are seeing the importance of investing in golf shoes. This is due to the fact that golf shoes play a role in maintaining the stability and balance of a player on the field. The traction provided by these shoes help in the back swing of the players, thereby aiding in the curve of their shots.
So, what are the things you need to consider when buying a pair of these shoes? Continue reading this article to find out.

The first thing you need to consider before buying a pair is the frequency of your play.

How often do you go to the course? Do you play on a regular basis, or are you just a hobbyist? Buying a pair is mostly recommended for players who go out on a regular basis. For hobbyists, you might want to consider using a pair of sneakers that have deep ridges to provide good grip on the ground. Additionally, you might want to buy a pair of cheap ones since it would not be used on a regular basis.

Comfort is another facet that must be considered in buying golf shoes.

Golf shoesIt is important to factor this in, since you will be wearing them while you play. When speaking of comfort, you should not veer away from the concept of fitting. Fit is one of the things that must be taken into account when buying any type of equipment. A lousy fit can lead to disastrous results. When buying a pair, try on more than one pair of shoes to ensure that you get the perfect fit. Note that these shoes are slightly broader in the sole base. This is to maintain the balance and stability of the player. There are lots of websites that can help you find the perfect fit. Try it out before heading out to the sporting goods store to save time.

You might also want to look at different types of golf shoes.

There are pairs made of leather, while others are synthetic. The former is the most recommended type, as they are more durable and comfortable. However, they are more costly as compared to synthetic variants. Golf sandals are another option for those who like playing during summer. The open-toe design helps a lot in the breath ability of the footwear. However, this is not recommended for courses with hilly slopes, as they may be worn out easily.

Durability is another aspect to consider when buying a pair.

As mentioned previously, leather is a better option for those who want to buy shoes for golfing. They are waterproof, making them perfect for playing during the morning when there’s a great presence of dew in the greens. Again, with these properties present in your equipment, you must be ready to shell out some extra cash. But this will be worth your investment.

Another thing that must be considered is caring for your shoes.

Look at some of the available products to help maintain your golf shoes, such as leather lotions and cleaners. This is to ensure that your shoes will last a long time. Additionally, you might want to buy a special bag or a rack to make sure that your shoes are not hit or thrown away accidentally.

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Motivational speakers: Knowing and Connecting with the Audience

The ability to connect with the audience is a vital skill of motivational speakers. Forming and maintaining this connection stems from understanding the needs of the audience. Remember, the audience is rooting for you to satisfy and stimulate them. The audience wants to hear a good speech, to be entertained or to be inspired. Take time to know your audience or meet up with the company leadership (for company workshops).

SpeakerThis will put the material into context and you, in the right perspective. For example, if you were invited to a company where many other motivational speakers have held seminars or trainings, then you should most certainly avoid clichés and prepare a fresh material. Connect with the audience by relating your message or idea in their everyday life and most of all, balance between what they need to hear and what they want to hear. Below are some points that you must remember so that you can better connect with your audience and be an effective motivational speaker:

Do not talk about yourself too much

The speech is not about you, it is about the audience. Make sure that the stories or experiences that you will use are applicable to the audience’s career, needs and expectations. Otherwise, they will not think that you are genuinely trying to help.

Appeal to their values

Appealing to the values or faith that the audience profess is a great way to start a conversation with them. You do not have to be one with their faith, just show them that you respect their beliefs. Show them that even if you are not a member of their faith, you see that there are still much that you can learn from it. This can also make them appreciate your effort of researching about them. If you do not want to touch religious subjects, just make sure that you will not offend their beliefs and practices. Most motivational speakers overdo it though, that they look like they are trying too hard so do not make the similar mistake. If you are not that familiar with your audience’s faith, then all you have to do is research, research and research more.

Speak to them on their language

It is not enough that you speak well; you must also speak the language of the people you are talking to. This gives them a feeling that you are one of them and that you understand what they are going through. For example, motivational speakers who conduct talks to the youth often familiarize themselves with the mainstream media. If you will be talking to business executives, try to learn their expressions and even jargons.

Demeanor

Action speaks louder than words. In the same way, your overall demeanor can also communicate your message effectively. The way dress and the way you carry yourself should tell your audience: “hey guys! Look I am one of you! Do not be afraid to listen to what I have to say!” or if you are talking to company employees, you can dress up a little to say: “I was once an employee too, but look at me now, if I can do it, definitely you can too!” The way motivational speakers stand and gestures can also help establish a connection with the audience. Also, if confidence can be seen on how you carry yourself, then it can make your audience feel that you are sure with what you are saying. This will make them listen to you more.

Meet the audience at the level of their understanding

Using jargons or acronyms unfamiliar to the audience can intimidate them. Use simple words to make them feel that they are at your level. On the other hand, measure your words when talking to professionals. Always assume that these professionals know and master their stuff more than you do.

Read a lot

Motivational speakers should read a lot so that they can be knowledgeable to many subjects. Wide reading can make you a formidable and flexible speaker no matter who you are talking to.

Keynote Speaker Good motivational speakers underscore the significance of consistency and teach ways on how their actions won’t betray their words.

The New Age of Silicon Wristbands

Everybody knows what silicon wristbands are. Everybody knows what they look like, and everybody knows what they’re for. More than a fashion statement, silicon wristbands are symbols of support, messages worn around the wrist as silent proclamations. These colorful bands seem to have one primary use, and one niche market.

Not a lot of people know that silicon wristbands now have a new purpose. What’s more, this new purpose has almost nothing to do with charitable causes or awareness campaigns.

Silicon wristbandsAs of 2014, researchers have discovered, and have demonstrated, that the popular gel bands can actually act as devices that could determine just how exposed to chemicals a person is over a certain period of time, from a single day to several months.

This research stems from the desire of scientists to monitor the compounds that a normal person would breathe in in different places and situations, and determine the potential effects of such compounds to the person’s health. Devices that could measure and monitor exposure do exist, but they are considered to be inefficient and impractical. This is primarily because of their large size (they have to be carried in a backpack for as long as the observation period requires) and their dependence on a source of energy, like batteries.

A professor from Oregon State University named Kim Anderson came up with silicone as a potential substitute to those bulky personal exposure monitors. She figured that since silicone is basically a sponge that absorbs compounds from the air, it could be used to measure exposure. A very practical way to do that is to use something silicone that could be worn on the body, and she realized that silicon wristbands might just work. This idea came to Dr. Anderson after she saw football fans wearing them at a game. In terms of practicality, the wristbands would be perfect; they’re light, compact, wearable, and does not require a power source. It’s only a matter of whether they would work as exposure monitors.

Dr. Anderson’s idea was tested through 30 volunteers who agreed to wear silicone bracelets that have been specially made for the project. The volunteers wore the bracelets for the entirety of 30 days, after which her team collected the bracelets and tried to see whether the silicone did trap the compounds as was theorized. They used solvents to extract the compounds, finding 49 out of a possible 1200, and identified them all using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Among the compounds they found were polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, flame-retardants, industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemicals found in personal care products.

In addition to the 30 volunteers, Dr. Anderson’s team also gave 8 construction workers a combination of three types of silicone monitoring devices (which included wristbands). The workers wore the devices during work periods that lasted up to 40 hours, after which the team once again observed the compounds that the silicone devices captured. They discovered that the types of compounds, the combinations, and the amount of the compounds all varied from worker to worker, showing differences depending on the type of work they did that day and for how long. Workers who worked indoors were observed to have absorbed more polyaromatic hydrocarbons than the ones who worked outdoors.

Of course, the big, battery-operated exposure monitoring devices are still more accurate and more reliable than the silicon wristbands. One of the reasons is that the backpack monitors could track particulate matter that the silicone bands couldn’t. On the other hand, the silicone devices are superior in that a person can go through his or her usual daily routine without much thought to the device while being observed, thus providing a more realistic observation, as opposed to being restricted by the heavy backpack monitors.

It would take further experimentation and more adjustments to make a silicone device that could track a person’s chemical exposure as accurately as a battery-powered monitor, but so far, Dr. Anderson’s observations are already a good indication of its potential.

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Buying Guide for Prohormones

ProhormonesProhormones are known to be a better and safer alternative to steroids. They are not banned, they do not cause harmful side effects when used properly, they do not bring your testosterone to frighteningly high levels, and they still bring the expected results of improving strength, building muscles, and shortening recovery time. This does not mean, though, that anyone should start taking these supplements. To know if you are ready for a cycle of prohormone, you can ask yourself the following questions.

Are you over 21 years of age?

Men below 21 years old normally have high levels of testosterone in their body, so there really is no need to supplement for the purpose of increasing it.

Are you passionate about living a healthy lifestyle that includes regular training and healthy diet?

There is no use taking prohormones if you are going to stop lifting weights once you start the cycle. Your muscles will not grow nor your strength improve magically just by popping these supplements every day. In fact, you must be more serious about your training and ensure that you are eating the right foods.

Do you have an existing liver problem?

Prohormone supplements can stress your liver, so it will just aggravate your situation if you already have a liver problem. To be sure, consult with your physician so that he can check you up and give you a go signal.

Are you willing to seriously adhere to the cycle instructions and meet its demands?

Those taking prohormones are advised to stop drinking alcohol while on a cycle. They should also take other supplements that will prevent the manifestation of side effects, like estrogen-related side effects. Furthermore, you must ensure that you do not take this supplement longer than what is recommended by the manufacturer. Disregarding these instructions can harm your body, hence, a strict discipline is necessary to those who want to use this supplement.

prohormone supplementsIf your answers to the questions above prove that you are ready to use prohormone supplements, then it is time to shop for your first bottle. You will realize that there are several types and brands of PH supplement. Each has a different formulation, so you will notice that the recommended dosage also varies. As a rule, the safest route is to find a mild prohormone for your first cycle. Start with the lowest recommended dosage and slowly increase to the maximum dosage allowed. If you do not see any positive results or very minimal improvement after a cycle, do not fret. This is highly possible because the effects of prohormone supplements partly depend on the amount of enzymes in your body that are necessary to the conversion of this precursor molecule into testosterone. The formulation plays a role too, so you may want to switch to a different brand on your next cycle.

When buying online, find a brand that is made by a reputable company. You will be ingesting this, therefore, knowing that it is manufactured in a hygienic facility using a formulation that was extensively researched by professionals will put your mind at ease. Good companies also ensure that they keep their good name, so you can expect better quality products from them. Next, remember to ask the seller when the expiration of the product is and if he offers a guarantee in case the batch that you received is expired, defective, or entirely wrong. Reading reviews about the seller and the manufacturer will save you from a lot of trouble later on. Therefore, stick to those that have kept their past customers highly satisfied.

When you have found the right brand of prohormones and a reliable seller, just place your order and be ready to start your cycle. If you strictly follow the instructions and have chosen the brand that works well with your body, you will soon be seeing the muscle gains and better strength that you have aimed for.